October 18, 2017

The Mystery of the Heroes Day 10/11 Same with Majapahit Day 1293

Agus Wibowo
November 10 is celebrated as Heroes Day, Surabaya City Day, and Majapahit Kingdom Anniversary in 1293. 10 November commemorated as Heroes Day refers to the war to defend Indonesia's independence that occurred in Surabaya three months after the Proclamation. This war involves a British-led Allied Troop with tens of thousands of young men from East and Central Java who gathered in Surabaya.
The war came after the Allies threatened to bombard and destroy Surabaya, if all armed laskar in Surabaya do not surrender weapons seized from Japanese troops. Threats spread through airplanes were ignored; even Bung Tomo burned the youthful spirit of Surabaya to continue fighting. Because the threats were not obeyed, the Allies attacked with all force: bombed from a docked ship, deployed a tank army, and a well-armed infantry. Thousands of young men died in this incident. Laskar and youth in Surabaya are not able to strike back because of limited weapons, whether booty weapons from the Japanese arsenal, machetes, swords and sharpened bamboo.

Most of the youths involved in the Surabaya war were santri from pesantrens in East and Central Java who were driven by kiai, who adheres to kiai kaji Hasyim Asyari, founder of NU. This all-out war on November 10 raises the question “Why it can happen on November 10th, the same as the anniversary of Majapahit Kingdom declared by Raden Wijaya on 10/11, 1293?”
Although the declaration of the Majapahit Kingdom was conducted in Tarik near Mojokerto, Surabaya is also a battleground between troops Raden Wijaya and Aria Wiraraja with Monggol troops sent Yuan Service in China. Expulsion of Monggol troops then continued with the proclamation of Majapahit Kingdom was used as a reference anniversary of Surabaya.
The next question is "Did the Kiai NU know the date of November 10 is the anniversary of Majapahit and therefore they will make a big event?” From the film "Sang Kiai" dated November 10, 1945 was not chosen by intentionally linking with 10 November 1293. In the film there is a dialogue where Kiai Hasyim asks larkar to be patient, do not rush to attack, and wait for the army from Central Java. It could be the 10th of November set by the Allied Forces. This makes more sense because British troops know more about the history of Java. They had commissioned Stamfor Raffles as Governor-General of Java and Sumatra in 1805.
During his stint in Java Raffles sought and identified inscriptions in Java including in East Java. Some inscriptions were brought to India to be read by an expert on the letters Palawa and Sanskrit, then he published The History of Java. Then Raffles brought some experts including J. Brandes who translated the Book of Pararaton and H. Kern who translated the Book of Negarakertagama, where there is information about 10 November 1293. Information from Raffles who is a former governor general is A1 and very important. The next question, "Why is November 10th 1293 triumphant and gloriously made a moment of destruction and mass death in Surabaya?”
It could be an allied British-led force wanting to downplay and suppress the pride of November 10, 1293. But the adherence of youth, kiai and santri are not broken by the threat of death. However blood that spilled in Surabaya on November 10, 1945 increasingly nourishes the spirit of Indonesia to remain independent. Spirit of Heroes Day and Happy Day of Surabaya City.

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